助动词本身无意义，在句中帮助主要动词构成一定的时态，语态、语气，或是帮助构成否定句和疑问句，常用的助动词有be, do, have, shall(should), will(would).
情态动词表一定的词义，本身并不表示动作或状态，而仅仅表达说话人的态度，它在句中须和主要动词一起构成谓语，主要的情态动词有can(could), may (might), must, have to, ought to, need, dare, shall, should, will, would.
1、can 能，可以，表说话人同意，许可还可表客观条件许可，如:You can go now.
提建议或请求时可用can I, can you表客气，如Can I buy you a drink?
can和be able to表能力时的区别。
can表一般具有的能力，be able to表在特定条件下的能力，如:Although the driver was badly hurt, he was able to explain what had happened.
（1）、可以，表说话人同意，许可或请求对方许可。You may go.
（2）、（现在和将来）可能，也许，只用于肯定句和否定句中，如He may not be right.
3、must, have to
must表主观上的必须，have to表客观上的必须，如:It's getting late. I have to go. -Must I go now. -Yes, you must.
(No, you needn't./ No, you don't have to.)
4、need, dare这二词有实意动词和情态动词两种词性，如用作实意动词后接动词不定式to do，如用作情态动词后接动词原形。Need I go now? --Yes, you must./No, you needn't.)
5、shall用于第一人称疑问句中表说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请求，如，Shall we begin our lesson?
用于二、三人称陈述句，表说话人命令、警告、允诺、威胁等口吻，如: You shall fail if you don't work harder.
6、should表应该，意为有责任，有义务。如:We should try our best to make our country more beautiful.
7、will表有做某事的意志、意愿、安心、打算，如 "Will you lend me your book?" "Yes, I will."，
8、should have done表应该做而未做
must have done表对过去事实的肯定推测
could have done表本可以做某事
9、判断句：肯定句用must, 否定句用can't, 不太肯定用may, might
He must be in the office now.
He must have gone to bed, for the light is out.
He can't be in the office. He is at home.
He couldn't have cleaned the classroom, because he didn't come here today.
He might be in the office, I am not sure.
He might have cleaned the room, I suppose.
例1，They _______ to walk in the street at might.
A. didn't dare B. not dared C. not dare D. dared not
解析，该题答案为A， 此空需选一动词作谓语，因为后面是to walk, didn't dare是行为动词dare过去时态的否定形式。
例2，When he was very old, Mr. Smith _______ sit for hours without saying a word.
A. would B. should C. must D. used
解析，该题答案为A, would此处表过去的倾向性，习惯性动作，意为"总是"如: When we were children, we would go swimming every summer.
（1） 在含有宾语从句的主从复合句中，当主句的谓语动词是think, expect, believe, suppose, guess, fancy, imagine等，且主句主语是第一人称时，宾语从句谓语的否定习惯上要移到主句谓语上，如: I don't think he is right.
（2） 含有否定意义的副词never, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely, barely的句子应视为否定句，如: I have never been there before.
（1） need和dare 既可作情态动词，又可作实意动词，在反问部分须加以区别，如We needn't leave, need we? We don't need to leave, do we?
（2） 陈述部分出现否定意义的副词或代词如never, seldom, few, hardly, little等时，反问部分须用肯定形式如：He seldom comes, does he?
（3） 陈述部分用不定代词作主语时，反问部分的主语用it ，如：Nothing can stop me, can it?
陈述部分用everybody, everyone, somebody, someone，等作主语时，反问部分常用it，有时也用they，如:Everybody knows that, don't they?
（4） 陈述部分包括used to 时，反问部分可有两种形式，如: You used to get up early, usedn't (didn't) you?
（5） 陈述部分是"there + be"结构时，反问部分用there，如:There's something wrong with you, isn't there?
（6） 陈述部分是含有宾语从句的主从复合句时，反问部分的主语和谓语应和主句保持一致，如: He never told others what he thought, did he?
但，如果是I think , I believe等 +宾语从句时，反问部分须和从句的动词保持一致，如，I don't think he is right, is he? I don't believe he does that, does he?
What a beautiful park it is.
How beautiful a park it is.
How beautiful the park is.
How we worked!
Don't stand there.
Please open the door for the old lady.
例1，Don't forget to post the letter, _______ ?
A. will you B. do you C. won't you D. shall you
解析：该题答案为A， 在否定句、祈使句后只用"will you"?，但肯定的祈使句后可用如，Wait for me, will (won't, can, can't, could) you?
例2，Let's go out for a walk, _______ ?
A. will you B. won't you C. shall we D. do we
解析：该题答案为C，let's…后加上shall we来表语气婉转、客气，而在let us后加上will you。
例3，He hardly writes to you, _______ ?
A. doesn't he B. does he C. do they D. has he
What he wants is a piece of paper.
It is believed that he can solve the problem.
I don't know how to solve the problem.
Do you know where he lives?
The problem is who can help me.
This is why I came here.
I have no idea where he went.
I heard the news that he would come.
同位语从句用that引导，常跟在fact, idea, news, promise, thought, message, hope, belief, doubt等词后，that在从句中不作任何成分。
在复合句中，修饰某一名词或代词，或修饰整个主句的从句叫做定语从句，引导定语从句的关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, that, as,和关系副词when, where, why。
a. 先行词有all, everything等不定代词时，如，
Everything (that) he did is wrong.
b. 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时，如，
I'll read all the books (that) you lend me.
This is the first letter (that) the boy has written.
d. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时，如
He is the very man (that) I'm looking for.
This is the book about which we have talked a lot.
The book, which he gave me yesterday, is very interesting.
This is the room where I worked.
This is the room which I stayed in.
I remembered the day when we lived there.
I remembered the day that I spent there.
as 可以放于句首，而which 不可以
As you know, he is good at English.
three of them 和three of which
I have a lot of books, three of which are in Russian.
I have a lot of books and three of them are in Russian.
例1、 _______ I accept the gift or refuse it is none of your business.
A. If B. Whether C. Even if D. No matter when
例2、The way _______ these comrades look at problems is wrong.
A. where B. in that C.X D. with which
解析：该题答案为C，先行词是way，定语从句中用that或 in which来引导或不填。
例3， ____a long time since I saw you last time.
A．It was B. It is C. It had been D. It can be
解析：该题答案为B，It is +时间数+ since引导的从句是一个句型，意为"从…时候以来过了多久了。"
To work hard is necessary for a student.
Both he and I are right.
但并列主语如果指的是同一人，同一事物或同一概念，谓语动词用单数，如, His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.
（3）、主语是单数时，尽管后面跟有as well as, but ,except, besides, with ,along with, together with, like等，谓语动词仍用单数，如，
The teacher as well as his students is excited.
（4）、某些不定代词，如做主语，谓语动词要用单数，如:Everyone has a book.
（5）、一些只有复数形式的名词，如people, cattle, clothes等作主语时，谓语动词要用复数，如，A lot of people are dancing outside.
Twenty years is not a long time.
（2）、表示总称意义的名词public, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时，谓语动词用复数，如，
People are talking about the accident.
My family is a big one.
My family are watching TV.
用连词or, either……or, neither……nor, whether……or, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语，如果一个是单数，一个是复数，则谓语动词按就近一致原则，与最靠近它的主语一致，如，
Either you or I am mad.
例1、 The chemical works _______ where my father has worked for thirty years in 1949.
A. was built B. were built C. is built D. are built
解析：该题答案为A。works形式上是复数，意思上是单数，因此谓语动词用单数，类似的还有news, maths, politics, physics.
例2、They each _______ a copy of the new physics.
A. have B. has C. having D. gets
解析：该题答案为A。They each不等于each of …, each of 这个词组作主语谓语用单数如each of the students hands in their homework，而they each作主语，谓语要随each前面的词来变化。
（1）there be 句型
There is going to be a meeting.
There is a book on the table.
（2）here, there, now, then, in, out等副词置于句首时，主谓倒装，但如果主语是人称代词时，主语和谓语语序不倒装，如，
Here comes the bus.
Here he comes.
"What he said meant nothing", said the teacher.
（4）为保持句子平衡，强调表语或状语，使上下文紧密衔接时须完全倒装，如，In front of the house sat a small boy.
（1）so, neither, nor置于句首说明与前者情况一致时，如，
I like swimming, so does my brother.
Only through this method can we win.
Only in this way can we do the work well.
（3）含有否定意义的词置于句首，如，Hardly, scarcely, not, seldom, no sooner, never, little, at no time, in no way, no more等，如，
Never had I heard that.
Little did I know about this.
（4）以often, so +形容词或副词开头的句子，如，
So heavy is the box that he cannot carry it.
（5）用于省略if的虚拟条件句中，将had, were, should提前，如，
Were I you, I wouldn't do that.
Had he come, we would have won.
May you be happy for ever.
例1、Not only ____ this machine but ____ it.
A. can he run……can he repair B. can he run……he can repair
C. he can run……he can repair D. he can run……can he repair
解析：该题答案为B，在not only……but (also)句型中，只有but前面的部分倒装，but后面仍是正常语序。
例2、____, it is quite easy to drill a hole in it with laser（激光）.
A. Hard although the diamond B. Hard as the diamond is
C. As the diamond is hard D. Has hard is the diamond
例3、Only in this way ____ to improve the situation there.
A. can you hope B. you can hope C. hope can D. you hope
（十五）it 与there be的用法
I have a new pen. It is beautiful.
The Browns have a new baby. It's cute.
It's twelve o'clock now.
It's fine today.
It's no good telling him that.
It's necessary for you to do so.
（4）用在强调结构中，构成强调句式：It is/was +被强调部分+that/who/whom +句子其余部分，可强调除谓语以外的句子其他成分，如，
It was this morning that I saw him in the street.
It was I who saw him in the street this morning.
It was in the street that I saw him this morning.
It was him whom I saw in the street this morning.
There are a lot of students playing on the ground.
There is going to be a test this afternoon.
There is a pen and three pencils in the pencil-box.
There isn't a desk, a bench and three chairs in the room.
There are lots of people like it, aren't there?
there be句型，谓语动词除be之外，还可用其他表示存在，位置移动等意义的不及物动词或词组，如exist, stand, lie, enter, come, happen to be, appear to be等，如，
There stands a house at the foot of the hill.
there be句型表示"存在"而have表"有"、"拥有"，所以there be中 be不能换成have，但当have表示事物的特征时，可用"主语+have"结构替换there be 句型，如：
There are five doors in the house.
The house has five doors.
there be 的其它句型：
1、There must be a meeting in the office.
2、There have been great changes since 1979.
3、There being no bus, we had to walk home.
例１ ____ that he went to sleep.
A It was until midnight B That was until midnight
C It was not until midnight D That was not until midnight
解析：该题答案为C。强调until结构时，要将否定词not移到until前。又如：He didn't leave until twelve 改为It was not until twelve that he left.
例２ There are a lot of students ____ in the class room.
A talk B talking C talked D to talk
解析：该题正确答案为B。 There be句型为倒装句，可换为A lot of students are talking in the class room. 又如：There is a lot of noise heard out in the street.
No smoking! Thanks s lot!等。
（１） 口语中，一、二、三人称的主语，有时还包括谓语都可以省略。如：（It is）Nice to see you!
(This is) Li Ming speaking.
I'm going to visit Tom's (house).
I met him at the tailor's (shop).
（３） 两个或两个以上的动词不定式并列在一起时，第一个不定式带to，后面的不定式可省to.如: His job is to clean and mend the machine.
（４） 主（宾）语补足语中的to be常省略。He was considered (to be) the best student in the class.
（５） There be结构中 there be可同时省略，或只省略there.如：(Is there) Anything wrong?
（６） 表示年龄的years old, 表示钟点的o'clock, minute等常省略。如：What time is it now? It's ten (o'clock).
（１） 宾语从句，以which, when, where, how和why引起的宾语从句谓语与主句谓语如相同，可省略从句中全部谓语，甚至主语也可省略，仅保留wh－一词。如：
He will come, but we don't know when (he will come).
He didn't come, I wondered why (he didn't come).
The man (whom) I saw in the street the other day is my teacher.
I'll tell him that when (it is) possible.
I won't go there unless (I'm) invited.
例１ A beam of light will not bend（弯曲）round corners unless____ to do so with the help of a reflecting device（反射装置）。
A made B being made C having made D to be made
解析：该题正确答案为A。 unless后省略了it is. make sb (sth) do sth变成被动语态则为sth/ sb be made to do.
例２ While ____my homework, I heard a cry for help.
A do B did C doing D having done
解析：该题答案为C。该空处省略了I'm,相当于while I'm doing my home work.如：While playing guitar, he is singing.
1. He was a good swimmer so he ____ swim to the river bank when the boat sank.
A. can B. might C. could be able to D. was able to
2． At the Christmas party Santa Claus (圣诞老人) ____ the presents under the tree.
A. handed back B. handed out
C. handed in D. handed to
3. Tears ____ the little match girl's eyes as she thought of her kind grandfather.
A. ran down B. fell down C. came to D. rolled into
4. A child can't learn ____ without ____.
A. to spell, helping B. spelling, helping
C. spell, being helped D. spelling, being helped
5. Only one man had ever been elected President four times, ____ Franklin D.
A. for example B. such as
C. the one of whom D. that is to say
6. ____, the medical team is made up of twelve doctors.
A. Altogether B. Entirely C. Completely D. Wholly
7. ---- ____.
---- Have a good time.
A. I've to see the doctor now
B. It's time for dinner
C. I went to the concert last night
D. I'm going to a party now
8. The man lives in a ____ place. That is, he lives ____ from here.
A. far away, far away B. faraway, faraway
C. far away, faraway D. faraway, far away
9. The patient's progress was encouraging as he could ____ get out of bed without help.
A. nearly B. only C. hardly D. badly
10. We have to set off right away, ____ we ?
A. do B. don't C. have D. haven't
11. The street lights ____ on when night falls.
A. will have turned B. will have been turning
C. will be turned D. will be turning
12. " Well, in the translation, the word ____ a different meaning," said Miss Dianna.
A. takes on B. takes up C. looks like D. has a look at
13. When he was through ____ he got up and left.
A. to talk B. to be talked C. talking D. being talked
14. The town has ____ bridge.
A. a fine old stone's B. an old fine stone's
C. a fine old stone D. an old fine stones
15. I didn't buy the apples; he gave them to me ____ nothing.
A. with B. for C. at D. by
16. ____ speak to me like that again.
A. Never B. Not C. Not to D. Can't
17. Egypt is ____ the oldest countries in the world.
A. one B. between C. among D. in the middle of
18. They fought ____ the end and won ____ the end.
A. in, to B. to, in C. in, in D. to, to
19. I ____ three hours on the text and it will ____ me another hour for the grammar.
A. have spent, take B. spend, need have
C. take, spend D. need, take
20. The play put on by the students was quite different ____ you imagined.
A. from what B. to that C. from which D. to which
21. Here ____ the worker and writer.
A. comes to B. comes C. come D. are coming
22. Would you like to have ____ more bread?
A. some B. any C. a few D. little
23. There will be few, if ____.
A. some B. any C. much D. many
24. I have ____ things to do. I can't play ____.
A. many, no more B. a lot of, any more
C. much more, more D. much of, any more
25. I walked 50 miles today. I never guessed that I could walk ____ far.
A. that B. this C. such D. as
26. I am sorry I took your umbrella ____ mistake.
A. with B. through C. for D. by
27. You can go where you like ____ you get back before dark.
A. as well as B. as long as
C. as soon as D. so as to
28. ____ we know, this is the best of its kind.
A. Because B. When C. As far as D. That
29. There isn't any water ____ air on the moon.
A. and B. or C. but D. both
30. It was not long ____ we climbed up the mountain.
A. after B. before C. since D. until
31. The girl grew ____ age and wisdom.
A. for B. in C. with D. by
32. The climate (气候) in Beijing does not agree ____ me.
A. on B. to C. with D. in
33. There's a police car in front of the department store. What do you suppose ____.
A. is happened B. has happened
C. would happen D. did happen
34. ____ better attention, the cabbages (洋白菜) could have grown better with
the sun ____ them light.
A. Given, gave B. Given, giving
C. Giving, given D. Giving, giving
35. What is ____ next?
A. to do B. to be done C. doing D. done
36. "A Dream of the Red Chamber" (红楼梦) is said ____ into dozens of languages in the last decade (十年).
A. to have been translated B. to be translated
C. to translate D. to have translated
37. Some scientists say that the need for fresh water ____ by the year 2000.
A. will have doubled B. will be doubling
C. be doubled D. has doubled
38. It ____ I had no money with me at the moment.
A. is so happened that B. was so happened that
C. so happened which D. so happened that
39. What does the weighing machine ____?
A. express B. explain C. read D. write
40. Over a hundred boys came to ____ out for the football team.
A. go B. run C. try D. make
41. There are ____ boys than girls in our class.
A. much more B. many more C. many D. a lot many
42. His health is ____.
A. as poor, if not poorer than, his sister
B. as poor as his sister's if not poor
C. as poor as, if not poorer than, his sister's
D. as poor, if not poorer than his sister's
43. The trees can ____ part of the heat from the sun.
A. keep up B. keep on C. keep out D. keep up with
44. ____ hearing the news, we jumped ____ joy.
A. On, with B. In, to C. At, in D. For, with
45. The hot weather will ____ another month, I think.
A. go on with B. go on for C. get on with D. go on to
46. When I was at school, I ____ to the library every afternoon.
A. has gone B. went C. was going D. had been going
47. " Do you go to school?" " ____."
A. No, I go home B. Yes, I am
C. No, I work D. No, I cycle
48. " Shall I keep the book or pass it on to Jack?"
" ____, please."
A. Yes, you shall B. No, you mustn't
C. Yes, please keep it D. Pass it on to Jack
49. These photographs will show you ____.
A. what does our village look like
B. what our village looks like
C. how does our village look like
D. how our village looks like
50. Please explain ____.
A. me the sentence B. the sentence to me
C. me to the sentence D. the sentence for me
1-5 DBCDD 6-10 ADDAB 11-15 CACCB 16-20 ACBAA 21-25 BABBA 26-30 DBCBB
31-35 CCBBB 36-40 AADCC 41-45 BCCAB 46-50 BCDBB
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